PERSON

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsá al-Khwārizmī al-Majūsī

Name (arabic)

أبو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي المجوسي

Name (translit)

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsá al-Khwārizmī al-Majūsī

Alias

Khwārizmī
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al‐Khwārizmī

Flourished

173H/790J

Lived in

Notes

Al-Khwārizmī was a well‐known astronomer and mathematician who flourished in the late 8th/early 9th centuries in Baghdad. He worked in the ʿAbbāsid courts of the caliphs al-Maʾmūn (830-33), al-Muʿtaṣim (833-42), and al-Wāthiq (842-47). The word “algorithm” was derived from the nisba of his name.

Number in MAMS

41

Biography URL

ismi_id

106357

Authored Works

29 works:

Algebra

Mukhtaṣar min ḥisāb al-jabr wa-al-muqābalah , مختصر من حساب الجبر والمقابلة

Arithmetic: Practical/ḥisāb

Kitāb al-ḥisāb al-hindī (Khwārizmī) , كتاب الحساب الهندي
Kitāb al-jamʿ wa-al-tafrīq (Khwārizmī) , کتاب الجمع والتفريق

Astronomical Instruments

Birkār al-ḥillah , بركار الحلّة
Kitāb al-ʿamal bi-al-asṭurlāb (Khwārizmī) , كتاب العمل بالأصطرلاب
Maʿrifat al-samt bi-al-asṭurlāb , معرفة السمت بالأسطرلاب
Ṣanʿat al-asṭurlāb , صنعة الأسطرلاب
Ṣinʿat al-rubʿ al-sāʿāt , صنعة الربع الساعات
Ṭarīq maʿrifah khusūf al-qamar , طريق معرفة خسوف القمر
ʿAmal al-bankān alladhī yusammá al-bunduqiyyah , عمل البنكان اللذي یسمی البندقية
ʿAmal al-bankān wa-huwa al-tughār wa-huwa al-bāss lil-sāʿāt al-mustawiyyah wa-al-muʿwajjah , عمل البنكان وهو التغار وهو الباس للساعات المستوية والمعوجّة
ʿAmal al-maknasah , عمل المكنسة
ʿAmal al-mukḥulah lil-sāʿāt , عمل المكحلة للساعات
ʿAmal al-sāʿāt fī basīṭ al-rukhāmah , عمل الساعات في بسيط الرخامة
ʿAmal birkār yuʿraf bihi al-awqāt li-al-ṣalāh , عمل بركار يُعرف به الأوقات للصلاة
ʿAmal dūlāb al-sāʿāt , عمل دولاب الساعات
ʿAmal ṣafīḥah yuʾkhadh bihā al-irtifāʿ wa-yuʿraf bihā ṭulūʿ al-qamar fī kull laylah , عمل صفيحة يؤخذ بها الارتفاع ويعرف بها طلوع القمر في كلّ ليلة

Astronomical Tables/zījes

al-Jadwal al-ʿishrīnī li-Abī Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsá al-Khwārizmī , الجدول العشريني لأبي جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمي
Maʿrifah siʿat al-mashriq fī kull balad , معرفة سعة المشرق في کل بلد
Zīj al-Ḥwārizmī , زيج الخوارزمي

Astronomy: General

Maʿrifah samt min qibal al-irtifaʿ , معرفة سمت من قبل الارتفاع
Maʿrifah ʿamal bi-al-samt bi-al-ẓill wa-bi-al-irtifāʿ , معرفة عمل بالسمت بالظلّ وبالارتفاع

Astronomy: Practical

Maʿrifah taqwīm samt al-Qiblah <li> ayyi baladin shiʾta , معرفة تقويم سمت القبلة لأيّ بلد شئت
Maʿrifah ʿarḍ al-balad , معرفة عرض البلد
ʿAmal siʿah ayy mashriq shiʾta min al-burūj fī ayy ʿarḍ shiʾta bi-al-handasah , عمل سعة أي مشرق ﺷﺋت ﻣن اﻟﺑروج ﻓﻲ أي ﻋرض ﺷﺋت ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻧدﺳﺔ

Astronomy: Theoretical/hayʾaẗ al-ʿālam

Kitāb ikhtiṣār al-majisṭī , كتاب اختصار المجسطي
Maʿrifah ʿurūḍ al-aqālīm , معرفة عروض الأقاليم

Chronology

Risālah fī istikhrāj taʾrīkh al-yahūd wa-aʿyādihim , رسالة في استخراج تأريخ اليهود وأعيادهم

References

Brentjes, Sonja. 2007. “Khwārizmī: Muḥammad Ibn Mūsā Al‐Khwārizmī”. In The Biographical Encyclopedia Of Astronomers, ed. Thomas Hockey, 1:631-633. New York: Springer.
Charette, François, and Petra Schmidl. 2004. “Al-Khwārizmī And Practical Astronomy In Ninth-Century Baghdad, The Earliest Extant Corpus Of Texts In Arabic On The Astrolabe And Other Portable Instruments”. Sciamvs 5: 101-98.
İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin, and Boris Rozenfeld. 2003. Mathematicians, Astronomers And Other Scholars Of Islamic Civilisation And Their Works (7Th-19Th C.). Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture.

Pp. 21-26 (no. 41).

Sesiano, Jacques. 1997. “Al-Khwārizmī”. In Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science, Technology, And Medicine In Non-Western Cultures, ed. H Selin, 482-483. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Brockelmann, Carl. 1996. Geschichte Der Arabischen Litteratur (Gal). 5 vol.. Leiden; New York: E. J. Brill.

Vol. 1, pp. 381-82; suppl. 1, pp. 339-41.

Rozenfeld, Boris. 1993. “"geometric Trigonometry" In Treatises Of Al-Khwārizmī, Al-Māhānī, And Ibn Al-Haytham”. In Vestigia Mathematica, Studies In Medieval And Early Modern Mathematics In Honour Of H. L. L. Busard, eds. Menso Folkerts and Hogendijk, Jan, 305-308. Amsterdam; Atlanta: Rodopi.
Sesiano, Jacques. 1991. “Al-Ḫwārizmī”. In Lexikon Des Mittelalters, 5:241. München; Zürich: Artemis & Winkler.
Rozenfeld, Boris. 1990. “Sfericheskaya Trigonometriya Al-Khorezmi”. Istoriko-Matematicheskie Issledovaniya 32-33: 325-339.
Sesiano, Jacques. (04/1989AD) 1989. “Koptisches Zahlensystem Und (Griechisch-)Koptische Multiplikationstafeln Nach Einem Arabischen Bericht”. Centaurus 32 (1): 53–65.
Ahmedov, A.A., J. ad-Dabbâgh, and B.A. Rosenfeld. 1987. “Istanbul Manuscripts Of Al-Khwârizmî's Treatises”. Erdem (Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Dergisi) 3 (7): 163-211.
Wiedemann, Eilhard. 1987. “Al-Khwārizmī, Muḥammad B. Mūsā”. In Encyclopaedia Of Islam, 2nd ed., 4:912-913. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
King, David, George Saliba, and Paul Kunitzsch. 1987. “Al-Khwārizmī As A Source For The Sententie Astrolabii”. In From Deferent To Equant: A Volume Of Studies In The History Of Science In The Ancient And Medieval Near East In Honor Of E. S. Kennedy, 227–236. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
Berggren, J.Lennart. 1986. Episodes In The Mathematics Of Medieval Islam. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Pp. 6-9, 63-65, 100-4, 114-15.

King, David. 1986. A Survey Of The Scientific Manuscripts In The Egyptian National Library. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns; The American Research Center in Egypt.

P. 33.

Van der Waerden, B. 1985. A History Of Algebra From Al-Khwārizmī To Emmy Noether. Berlin: Springer.

Pp. 3-13.

Bulgakov, P.G. 1985. “Nauchnoye Okruzheniye Al-Khorezmi V Bagdade (The Scientific Environment Of Al-Ḫwārizmī In Baġdād)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 63-65. Tashkent.
Sokolovskaya, Z.K. 1985. “"doteleskopicheskiy" Period Istorii Astronomicheskikh Instrumentov. Rol' Al-Khorezmi V Razvitii Tochnogo Instrumentovedeniya Na Blizhnem I Srednem Vostoke (The 'pretelescopic' Period In The History Of Astronomical Instruments. The Role Of Al-Ḫwārizmī..)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 165-173. Tashkent.
Matvievskaya, Galina. 1985. “Istoriya Izucheniya Nauchnogo Tvorchestva Al-Khorezmi (History Of The Study Of Scientific Work Of Al-Ḫwārizmī)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 72-82. Tashkent.
Vogel, Kurt. 1985. “Kak Al-Khorezmi Stal Izvesten V Germanii? (How Al-Ḫwārizmī Became Known In Germany?)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 85-91. Tashkent.
Siddikov, K.S. 1985. “Muhammad Al-Khorezmi, Tvorets Algebry (Muhammad Al-Ḫwārizmī, Creator Of Algebra)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 152-154. Tashkent.
Sirajdinov, S.H., and A.A. Ahmedov. 1985. “Velikiy Uchenyy-Entsiklopedist Iz Khorezma (The Great Scholar And Encyclopedist Of Khorezm)”. In Elikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 25-29. Tashkent.
Zemanek, Heinz. 1985. “Rukopisi Trudov Al-Khorezmi (The Manuscripts Of Works Of Al-Ḫwārizmī)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 115-121. Tashkent.
Ibadov, J. 1985. “Tvorchestvo Al-Khorezmi V Otsenke Vostochnykh Uchonykh-Entsiklopedistov X-Xvi Vv.”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 265-268. Tashkent.
Khayrullayev, M.M. 1985. “O Mirovozzrenii I Nauchnykh Ideyakh Al-Khorezmi (About Worldview And Scientific Ideas Of Al-Ḫwārizmī)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 32-39. Tashkent.
Abdurahmonov, Abdumannon. 1985. “Al-Khorezmi, Velikiy Matematik (Al-Ḫwārizmī, Great Mathematician)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 149-151. Tashkent.
Sadritdinova, Z.I. 1985. “Al-Khorezmi I Vostochnye Uchebniki Pu Arifmetike V X-Xvi Vv. (Al-Ḫwārizmī And Textbooks On Arithmetic In The East, 10-14Th Centuries)”. In Velikiy Uchenyy Srednevekov'ya Al-Khorezmi. Materialy Yubileynoy Nauchnoy Konferentsii, Posvyashchennoy 1200-Letiyu So Dnya Pozhdeniya Muhammada Ibn Musy Al-Khorezmi, ed. M.M. Khayrullayev, 269-270. Tashkent.
Vogel, Kurt. 1984. “Wie Wurden Al-Ḫwārizmīs Mathematische Schriften In Deutschland Bekannt?”. Sudhoffs Archiv 68 (2): 230-234.
King, David. 1984. “Architecture And Astronomy: The Ventilators Of Medieval Cairo And Their Secrets”. Journal Of The American Oriental Society 104 (1, Studies in Islam and the Ancient Near East Dedicated to Franz Rosenthal): 97-133.
Zamarayev, V.S. 1984. Al-Khorezmi V Zarubezhnoy Nauchnoy Literature (Al-Ḫwārizmī In Foreign Scientific Literature). Tashkent.
Ahmedov, A.A. 1983. “Khorazmiy Ijodida Matematik Fanlar”. In Muhammad Ibn Musa Khorezmiy. Tanlangan Asarlar: Matematika, Astronomiya, Geografiya, tran. A. Ahmedovniki, 5-56. Tashkent.